Shumen (shŏˈmĕn) [key], city (1993 pop. 96,099), NE Bulgaria. It is a railway junction and a market for grains and other agricultural products. Brewing, tobacco processing, canning, flour milling, furniture building, and the manufacture of parts for tractors are the chief industries. Founded in 927, the city was fortified under Turkish rule (15th–19th cent.) and was strategically important in the Russo-Turkish Wars of the 18th and 19th cent. It is also the site of the largest mosque (built 1649) in Bulgaria. Originally called Shumen or Shumla, the city was renamed (1950) Kolarovgrad in honor of Bulgarian Communist leader Kolarov, who was born there. The name was changed back to Shumen in 1965.