Stuttgart (shtŏtˈgärt) [key], city (1994 pop. 594,406), capital of Baden-Württemberg, SW Germany, on the Neckar River. It is a major transportation point, with a large river port and an international airport, and a sizable industrial center. Manufactures include electrical and photographic equipment, machinery, optical and precision instruments, textiles, clothing, chemicals, beverages (including wine and beer), pianos, and motor vehicles and vehicle engines. It is also a tourist center and the site of industrial fairs. Its per capita income is the highest of any German city.
Stuttgart was chartered in the 13th cent. In 1320 it became a residence of the counts (later dukes, from 1806 kings) of Württemberg, who made it their capital at the end of the 15th cent. The city expanded rapidly in the 19th and 20th cent. as its industrial plant grew; it became an important center of the German automotive industry. After World War I it became famous for the innovative architecture of its numerous modern buildings. Noteworthy are the housing developments in the outer residential districts, where contemporary theories of home building were applied on a large scale. The center of the city, which formed its oldest part, was almost totally destroyed in World War II.
After 1945 many old buildings were restored, and striking modern structures (such as the city hall and the concert hall) were erected. Other points of interest in the city include the Stiftskirche, a 12th-century church (redone in the 15th cent.); the rococo Solitude Palace (1763–67); the New Palace (1746–1807; now an administrative center); Rosenstein Palace (1824–29; now housing a museum of natural history); and the main railroad station (1914–27). The city has several other museums (including Mercedes-Benz and Porsche museums), a university, and an academy of fine arts. Friedrich von Schiller studied medicine in Stuttgart from 1773 to 1780.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.