], Portuguese Formosa,
officially Republic of China, island nation (2005 est. pop. 22,894,000), 13,885 sq mi (35,961 sq km), in the Pacific Ocean, separated from the mainland of S China by the 100-mi-wide (161-km) Taiwan Strait. Together with many nearby islets, including the Pescadores and the island groups of Quemoy
, it forms the seat of the Republic of China. The provisional capital is Taipei
; Nanjing, on mainland China, is regarded as the official capital of the republic.
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