] or Salonica
sălənēˈkə, səlŏnˈĭkə, also known as Thessalonike, Thessalonica, Salonika, and Saloniki, city (1991 pop. 383,967), capital of Thessaloníki prefecture, N Greece, in Macedonia; on the Gulf of Thessaloníki, an inlet of the Aegean Sea, at the neck of the Khalkidhikí Peninsula. It is the second largest city in Greece, a major modern port, and an industrial and commercial center. Exports from the port (opened in 1901) include grain, food products, tobacco, manganese and chrome ores, and hides. The city's industries produce refined oil, steel, petrochemicals, textiles, machinery, flour, cement, pharmaceuticals, and liquor. Thessaloníki is also a transportation hub. It is the site of an annual trade fair.
Although largely rebuilt in modern style, Thessaloníki still retains its famous white Byzantine walls, the 15th-century White Tower, and a Venetian citadel. The city is famous for its many fine churches, notably those of St. Sophia (modeled after its namesake in İstanbul and including fine mosaics), of St. George, and of St. Demetrius. The ruins of the triumphal arch of Emperor Constantine are there, in addition to Aristotle Univ.
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