Tucumán, city (1991 pop. 578,579), capital of Tucumán prov., NW Argentina. It is the commercial center of an area that produces sugar, legumes, lemons, and tobacco. The city was founded in 1565 and was moved to its present site in 1685. Spanish royalists were defeated in a battle at Tucumán (1812) by forces under Manuel Belgrano. A congress meeting in the city on July 9, 1816, proclaimed the independence of the United Provinces of La Plata from Spain. In the city are a national university, a popular shrine, and numerous historical landmarks. The city is also known as San Miguel de Tucamán.