Valenciennes (väläNsyĕnˈ) [key], city (1990 pop. 39,276), Nord dept., N France, on the Escaut (Scheldt) River. An old-line industry center in a former coal-mining region, its manufactures include railroad rolling stock, motor vehicles, paint, pharmaceuticals, electronics, and precision metalwork. An important place in medieval Hainaut, it became famous (15th cent.) for its lace industry. There is a museum there with works by Rubens and Van Dyck.