Volterra, town (1991 pop. 12,879), Tuscany, central Italy. A powerful Etruscan town, it later (12th–13th cent.) was a free commune and passed to Florence in the 14th cent. Of note are well-preserved Etruscan gates and tombs, medieval walls, a Romanesque cathedral, and the Palazzo dei Priori (13th cent.). The powerful fortress (built 14th–15th cent.) is now a prison. There is an Etruscan museum in the town.