Classic Pueblo period of Anasazi culture; cliff dwellings.
Hungary and Scandinavia converted to Christianity. Viking raider Leif Eriksson discovers North America, calls it Vinland. Beowulf, Old English epic.
Murasaki Shikibu finishes The Tale of Genji, the world's first novel.
Muslims destroy Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
Danes control England. Canute takes throne (1016), conquers Norway (1028), dies (1035); kingdom divided among his sons: Harold Harefoot (England), Sweyn (Norway), Hardecanute (Denmark).
Macbeth murders Duncan, king of Scotland.
Robert Guiscard, Norman invader, establishes kingdom in Italy, conquers Sicily (1072).
Final separation between Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman) churches.
Seljuk Turks, Asian nomads, move west, capture Baghdad, Armenia (1064), Syria, and Palestine (1075).
William of Normandy invades England, defeats last Saxon king, Harold II, at Battle of Hastings, crowned William I of England (“the Conqueror”).
Construction on the cathedral in Pisa, Italy, begins.
Emergence of strong papacy when Gregory VII is elected. Conflict with English and French kings and German emperors will continue throughout medieval period.
At Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II calls for a holy war to wrest control of Jerusalem from Muslims, which launches the First Crusade (1096), one of at least 8 European military campaigns between 1095 and 1291 to regain the Holy Land. (For detailed chronology, see The Crusades.)