Presidential Elections, 1789–2008

For the original method of electing the president and the vice president (elections of 1789, 1792, 1796, and 1800), see Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution. The election of 1804 was the first one in which the electors voted for president and vice president on separate ballots. (See Amendment XII to the Constitution.)

Year Presidential
candidate
Party Electoral
votes
1789 1 George Washington
John Adams
Scattering
Votes not cast
(no party)
(no party)
(no party)
69
34
35
8
1792 George Washington
John Adams
George Clinton
Thomas Jefferson
Aaron Burr
Votes not cast
Federalist
Federalist
Anti-Federalist
Anti-Federalist
Anti-Federalist
132
77
50
4
1
6
1796 John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Pinckney
Aaron Burr
Scattering
Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
71
68
59
30
48
1800 2 Thomas Jefferson
Aaron Burr
John Adams
Charles C. Pinckney
John Jay
Dem.-Rep.
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Federalist
Federalist
73
73
65
64
1
Year Presidential
candidate
Party Electoral
votes
Vice-presidential
candidate
Party Electoral
votes
1804 Thomas Jefferson
Charles C. Pinckney
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
162
14
George Clinton
Rufus King
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
162
14
1808 James Madison
Charles C. Pinckney
George Clinton
Votes not cast
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Dem.-Rep.
122
47
6
1
George Clinton
Rufus King
John Langdon
James Madison
James Monroe
Votes not cast
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Ind. (no party)
Dem.-Rep.
Dem.-Rep.
113
47
9
3
3
1
1812 James Madison
De Witt Clinton
Votes not cast
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
128
89
1
Elbridge Gerry
Jared Ingersoll
Votes not cast
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
131
86
1
1816 James Monroe
Rufus King
Votes not cast
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
183
34
4
Daniel D. Tompkins
John E. Howard
James Ross
John Marshall
Robert G. Harper
Votes not cast
Dem.-Rep.
Federalist
Ind (no party)
Federalist
Ind. (no party)
183
22
5
4
3
4
1820 James Monroe
John Quincy Adams
Votes not cast
Dem-Rep
Ind. (no party)
231
1
3
Daniel D. Tompkins
Richard Stockton
Daniel Rodney
Richard Rush
Robert G. Harper
Votes not cast
Dem.-Rep.
Ind. (no party)
Ind. (no party)
Ind. (no party)
Ind. (no party)
218
8
4
1
1
3
1824 3 John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson
William H. Crawford
Henry Clay
(no party)
(no party)
(no party)
(no party)
84
99
41
37
John C. Calhoun
Nathan Sanford
Nathaniel Macon
Andrew Jackson
Martin Van Buren
Henry Clay
Votes not cast
(no party)
(no party)
(no party)
(no party)
(no party)
(no party)
182
30
24
13
9
2
1
1828 Andrew Jackson
John Quincy Adams
Democratic
Natl. Rep.
178
83
John C. Calhoun
Richard Rush
William Smith
Democratic
Natl. Rep.
Democratic
171
83
7
1832 Andrew Jackson
Henry Clay
John Floyd
William Wirt
Votes not cast
Democratic
Natl. Rep.
Ind. (no party)
Antimasonic4
219
49
11
7
2
Martin Van Buren
John Sergeant
Henry Lee
Amos Ellmaker
William Wilkins
Votes not cast
Democratic
Natl. Rep.
Ind. (no party)
Antimasonic
Ind. (no party)
189
49
11
7
30
2
1836 Martin Van Buren
William H. Harrison
Hugh L. White
Daniel Webster
W. P. Mangum
Democratic
Whig
Whig
Whig
Ind. (no party)
170
73
26
14
11
Richard M. Johnson5
Francis Granger
John Tyler
William Smith
Democratic
Whig
Whig
Ind. (no party)
147
77
47
23
1840 William H. Harrison6
Martin Van Buren
Whig
Democratic
234
60
John Tyler
Richard M. Johnson
L. W. Tazewell
James K. Polk
Whig
Democratic
Ind. (no party)
Democratic
234
48
11
1
1844 James K. Polk
Henry Clay
Democratic
Whig
170
105
George M. Dallas
Theo. Frelinghuysen
Democratic
Whig
170
105
1848 Zachary Taylor7
Lewis Cass
Whig
Democratic
163
127
Millard Fillmore
William O. Butler
Whig
Democratic
163
127
1852 Franklin Pierce
Winfield Scott
Democratic
Whig
254
42
William R. King
William A. Graham
Democratic
Whig
254
42
1856 James Buchanan
John C. Fremont
Millard Fillmore
Democratic
Republican
American8
174
114
8
John C. Breckinridge
William L. Dayton
A. J. Donelson
Democratic
Republican
American8
174
114
8
1860 Abraham Lincoln
John C. Breckinridge
John Bell
Stephen A. Douglas
Republican
Democratic
Const. Union
Democratic
180
72
39
12
Hannibal Hamlin
Joseph Lane
Edward Everett
H. V. Johnson
Republican
Democratic
Const. Union
Democratic
180
72
39
12
1864 Abraham Lincoln9
George B. McClellan
Union10
Democratic
212
21
Andrew Johnson
G. H. Pendleton
Union10
Democratic
212
21
1868 Ulysses S. Grant
Horatio Seymour
Votes not counted11
Republican
Democratic
214
80
23
Schuyler Colfax
Francis P. Blair, Jr.
Votes not counted11
Republican
Democratic
214
80
23

NOTE: The Constitution specifies that the president and vice president be chosen through the votes cast by electors chosen by the states, rather than by a direct popular vote. At first, some electors were chosen by state legislatures, but by 1836 all states but South Carolina chose electors through a statewide popular vote. (S.C. followed suit in 1860.) Today, all states but Maine and Nebraska have a winner-take-all system in which all of a given state's electors vote for the winner of that state's popular vote. While not legally significant, the number of popular votes given nationwide to each major presidential candidate are listed here for elections beginning in 1872.

Year Presidential
candidate
Party Electoral
votes
Popular
votes
Vice-presidential
candidate and party
1872 Ulysses S. Grant
Horace Greeley
Thomas A. Hendricks
B. Gratz Brown
Charles J. Jenkins
David Davis
Votes not counted
Republican
Dem., Liberal Rep.
Democratic
Dem., Liberal Rep.
Democratic
Democratic
286
(12)
42
18
2
1
17
3,597,132
2,834,125
Henry Wilson—R
B. Gratz Brown—D, LR—(47)
Scattering—(19)
Vote not counted—(14)
1876 13 Rutherford B. Hayes
Samuel J. Tilden
Peter Cooper
Republican
Democratic
Greenback
185
184
0
4,033,768
4,285,992
81,737
William A. Wheeler—R
Thomas A. Hendricks—D
Samuel F. Cary—G
1880 James A. Garfield14
Winfield S. Hancock
James B. Weaver
Republican
Democratic
Greenback
214
155
0
4,449,053
4,442,035
308,578
Chester A. Arthur—R
William H. English—D
B. J. Chambers—G
1884 Grover Cleveland
James G. Blaine
Benjamin F. Butler
John P. St. John
Democratic
Republican
Greenback
Prohibition
219
182
0
0
4,911,017
4,848,334
175,370
150,369
Thomas A. Hendricks—D
John A. Logan—R
A. M. West—G
William Daniel—P
1888 Benjamin Harrison
Grover Cleveland
Clinton B. Fisk
Alson J. Streeter
Republican
Democratic
Prohibition
Union Labor
233
168
0
0
5,440,216
5,538,233
249,506
146,935
Levi P. Morton—R
A. G. Thurman—D
John A. Brooks—P
Charles E. Cunningham—UL
1892 Grover Cleveland
Benjamin Harrison
James B. Weaver
John Bidwell
Democratic
Republican
People's15
Prohibition
277
145
22
0
5,556,918
5,176,108
1,041,028
264,133
Adlai E. Stevenson—D
Whitelaw Reid—R
James G. Field—Peo
James B. Cranfill—P
1896 William McKinley
William J. Bryan
 
John M. Palmer
Joshua Levering
Republican
Dem., People's15
 
Natl. Dem.
Prohibition
271
176
 
0
0
7,035,638
6,467,946
 
133,148
132,007
Garret A. Hobart—R
Arthur Sewall—D—(149)
Thomas E. Watson—Peo—(27)
Simon B. Buckner—ND
Hale Johnson—P
1900 William McKinley16
William J. Bryan
Eugene V. Debs
Republican
Dem., People's15
Social Democratic
292
155
0
7,219,530
6,358,071
94,768
Theodore Roosevelt—R
Adlai E. Stevenson—D, Peo
Job Harriman—SD
1904 Theodore Roosevelt
Alton B. Parker
Eugene V. Debs
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
336
140
0
7,628,834
5,084,491
402,400
Charles W. Fairbanks—R
Henry G. Davis—D
Benjamin Hanford—S
1908 William H. Taft
William J. Bryan
Eugene V. Debs
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
321
162
0
7,679,006
6,409,106
402,820
James S. Sherman—R
John W. Kern—D
Benjamin Hanford—S
1912 Woodrow Wilson
Theodore Roosevelt
William H. Taft
Eugene V. Debs
Democratic
Progressive
Republican
Socialist
435
88
8
0
6,286,214
4,126,020
3,483,922
897,011
Thomas R. Marshall—D
Hiram Johnson—Prog
Nicholas M. Butler—R17
Emil Seidel—S
1916 Woodrow Wilson
Charles E. Hughes
A. L. Benson
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
277
254
0
9,129,606
8,538,221
585,113
Thomas R. Marshall—D
Charles W. Fairbanks—R
G. R. Kirkpatrick—S
1920 Warren G. Harding18
James M. Cox
Eugene V. Debs
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
404
127
0
16,152,200
9,147,353
917,799
Calvin Coolidge—R
Franklin D. Roosevelt—D
Seymour Stedman—S
1924 Calvin Coolidge
John W. Davis
Robert M. LaFollette
Republican
Democratic
Progressive, Socialist
382
136
13
15,725,016
8,385,586
4,822,856
Charles G. Dawes—R
Charles W. Bryan—D
Burton K. Wheeler—Prog, S
1928 Herbert Hoover
Alfred E. Smith
Norman Thomas
Republican
Democratic
Socialist
444
87
0
21,392,190
15,016,443
267,420
Charles Curtis—R
Joseph T. Robinson—D
James H. Maurer—S
1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Herbert Hoover
Norman Thomas
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
472
59
0
22,821,857
15,761,841
884,781
John N. Garner—D
Charles Curtis—R
James H. Maurer—S
1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Alfred M. Landon
Norman Thomas
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
523
8
0
27,751,597
16,679,583
187,720
John N. Garner—D
Frank Knox—R
George Nelson—S
1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Wendell L. Willkie
Norman Thomas
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
449
82
0
27,244,160
22,305,198
99,557
Henry A. Wallace—D
Charles L. McNary—R
Maynard C. Krueger—S
1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt19
Thomas E. Dewey
Norman Thomas
Democratic
Republican
Socialist
432
99
0
25,602,504
22,006,285
80,518
Harry S. Truman—D
John W. Bricker—R
Darlington Hoopes—S
1948 Harry S. Truman
Thomas E. Dewey
J. Strom Thurmond
Henry A. Wallace
Norman Thomas
Democratic
Republican
States' Rights Dem.
Progressive
Socialist
303
189
39
0
0
24,179,345
21,991,291
1,176,125
1,157,326
139,572
Alben W. Barkley—D
Earl Warren—R
Fielding L. Wright—SR
Glen Taylor—Prog
Tucker P. Smith—S
1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Adlai E. Stevenson
Republican
Democratic
442
89
33,936,234
27,314,992
Richard M. Nixon—R
John J. Sparkman—D
1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Adlai E. Stevenson
Republican
Democratic
457
7320
35,590,472
26,022,752
Richard M. Nixon—R
Estes Kefauver—D
1960 John F. Kennedy21
Richard M. Nixon
Democratic
Republican
303
21922
34,226,731
34,108,157
Lyndon B. Johnson—D
Henry Cabot Lodge—R
1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Barry M. Goldwater
Democratic
Republican
486
52
43,129,484
27,178,188
Hubert H. Humphrey—D
William E. Miller—R
1968 Richard M. Nixon
Hubert H. Humphrey
George C. Wallace
Republican
Democratic
American Independent
301
191
46
31,785,480
31,275,166
9,906,473
Spiro T. Agnew—R
Edmund S. Muskie—D
Curtis F. LeMay—Al
1972 Richard M. Nixon23
George McGovern
John G. Schmitz
Republican
Democratic
American
52024
17
0
47,169,911
29,170,383
1,099,482
Spiro T. Agnew—R
Sargent Shriver—D
Thomas J. Anderson—A
1976 Jimmy Carter
Gerald R. Ford
Eugene J. McCarthy
Democratic
Republican
Independent
297
24025
0
40,830,763
39,147,973
756,631
Walter F. Mondale—D
Robert J. Dole—R
None
1980 Ronald Reagan
Jimmy Carter
John B. Anderson
Republican
Democratic
Independent
489
49
0
43,899,248
36,481,435
5,719,437
George Bush—R
Walter F. Mondale—D
Patrick J. Lucey—I
1984 Ronald Reagan
Walter F. Mondale
Republican
Democratic
525
13
54,455,075
37,577,185
George Bush—R
Geraldine A. Ferraro—D
1988 George H. Bush
Michael S. Dukakis
Republican
Democratic
426
11126
48,886,097
41,809,074
J. Danforth Quayle—R
Lloyd Bentsen—D
1992 William J. Clinton
George H. Bush
H. Ross Perot
Democratic
Republican
Independent
370
168
0
44,909,889
39,104,545
19,742,267
Albert A. Gore, J.—D
J. Danforth Quayle—R
James B. Stockdale—I
1996 William J. Clinton
Robert J. Dole
H. Ross Perot
Democratic
Republican
Reform Party27
379
159
0
47,402,357
39,198,755
8,085,402
Albert A. Gore, Jr.—D
Jack F. Kemp—R
Pat Choate—RP27
2000 George W. Bush
Albert A. Gore
Ralph Nader
Republican
Democratic
Green Party
271
26628
0
50,456,002
50,999,897
2,882,955
Richard B. Cheney—R
Joseph I. Lieberman—D
Winona LaDuke—GP
2004 George W. Bush
John F. Kerry
Republican
Democratic
286
25129
62,028,285
59,028,109
Richard B. Cheney—R
John Edwards—D
2008 Barack Obama
John McCain
Democratic
Republican
365
173
66,862,039
58,319,442
Joseph Biden—D
Sarah Palin—R
1. Only 10 states participated in the election. The New York legislature chose no electors, and North Carolina and Rhode Island had not yet ratified the Constitution.
2. As Jefferson and Burr were tied, the House of Representatives chose the president. In a vote by states, 10 votes were cast for Jefferson, 4 for Burr; 2 votes were not cast.
3. As no candidate had an electoral-vote majority, the House of Representatives chose the president from the first three. In a vote by states, 13 votes were cast for Adams, 7 for Jackson, and 4 for Crawford.
4. The Antimasonic Party on Sept. 26, 1831, was the first party to hold a nominating convention to choose candidates for president and vice president.
5. As Johnson did not have an electoral-vote majority, the Senate chose him 33–14 over Granger, the others being legally out of the race.
6. Harrison died April 4, 1841, and Tyler succeeded him April 6.
7. Taylor died July 9, 1850, and Fillmore succeeded him July 10.
8. Also known as the Know-Nothing Party.
9. Lincoln died April 15, 1865, and Johnson succeeded him the same day.
10. Name adopted by the Republican National Convention of 1864. Johnson was a War Democrat.
11. 23 Southern electoral votes were excluded.
12. Greeley died Nov. 29, 1872, before his 66 electors voted; 63 of Greeley's votes were scattered among four of the other candidates.
13. Hayes was chosen by a special electoral commission since initially neither candidate had the requisite 185 electoral votes.
14. Garfield died Sept. 19, 1881, and Arthur succeeded him Sept. 20.
15. Members of People's Party were called Populists.
16. McKinley died Sept. 14, 1901, and Roosevelt succeeded him the same day.
17. James S. Sherman, Republican candidate for vice president, died Oct. 30, 1912, and the Republican electoral votes were cast for Butler.
18. Harding died Aug. 2, 1923, and Coolidge succeeded him Aug. 3.
19. Roosevelt died April 12, 1945, and Truman succeeded him the same day.
20. One electoral vote from Alabama was cast for Walter B. Jones.
21. Kennedy died Nov. 22, 1963, and Johnson succeeded him the same day.
22. Sen. Harry F. Byrd received 15 electoral votes.
23. Nixon resigned Aug. 9, 1974, and Gerald R. Ford succeeded him the same day.
24. One electoral vote from Virginia was cast for John Hospers, Libertarian Party.
25. One electoral vote from Washington was cast for Ronald Reagan.
26. One electoral vote from West Virginia was cast for Lloyd Bentsen.
27. Perot helped establish the Reform Party following his defeat in the 1992 election.
28. One elector from the District of Columbia left her ballot blank to protest the city's lack of representation in Congress, leaving Gore with 266 electoral votes instead of 267.
29. One elector from Minnesota cast a vote for John Edwards.

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Presidential Election of 2000, Electoral and Popular Vote Summary U.S. Elections 2000 Election Chronology