Bosnia and Herzegovina
Of all the new nations to break away from the Soviet Union or Yugoslavia, none has had as difficult a time as Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vicious ethnic warfare and an intervention by the Yugoslavian military have left tens of thousands dead and created one million refugees, nearly one-third of the population. After a 1992 referendum ratified Bosnian independence, Bosnian Serbs, backed by the Yugoslavian army, began an aggressive campaign to create a "Greater Serbia," and eliminate Muslims from areas under their control.
With Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and the Muslim-dominated government all forming armies, thousands of people were killed, many massacred because of their religion. Serbs ended the siege of Sarajevo in 1994. The 1995 Dayton Peace Accord partitioned the country along ethnic lines, creating the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serb Republic. NATO troops remain in Bosnia to keep the peace as the government gradually rebuilds the country and revives the shattered economy. Meanwhile, Bosnia depends heavily on billions in foreign aid.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Flag