The soothsayer's warning to Julius Caesar
, "Beware the Ides of March," has forever imbued that date with a sense of foreboding. But in Roman times the expression "Ides of March" did not necessarily evoke a dark mood—it was simply the standard way of saying "March 15." Surely such a fanciful expression must signify something more than merely another day of the year? Not so. Even in Shakespeare's
time, sixteen centuries later, audiences attending his play Julius Caesar
wouldn't have blinked twice upon hearing the date called the Ides.
The term Ides comes from the earliest Roman calendar
, which is said to have been devised by Romulus
, the mythical founder of Rome
. Whether it was Romulus or not, the inventor of this calendar had a penchant for complexity. The Roman calendar organized its months around three days, each of which served as a reference point for counting the other days:
The remaining, unnamed days of the month were identified by counting backwards from the Kalends, Nones, or the Ides. For example, March 3 would be V Nones—5 days before the Nones (the Roman method of counting days was inclusive; in other words, the Nones would be counted as one of the 5 days).
Used in the first Roman calendar
as well as in the Julian calendar
(established by Julius Caesar in 45 B.C.E.) the confusing system of Kalends, Nones, and Ides continued to be used to varying degrees throughout the Middle Ages
and into the Renaissance
So, the Ides of March is just one of a dozen Ides that occur every month of the year. Kalends, the word from which calendar
is derived, is another exotic-sounding term with a mundane meaning. Kalendrium
means account book in Latin: Kalend, the first of the month, was in Roman times as it is now, the date on which bills are due.