ALTHOUGH HER POPULARITY has apparently declined in recent years, Queen Elizabeth II
is generally seen as a conscientious monarch.
She has been criticized
for being cold, for her chilly attitude toward Princess Diana
in general and in particular for her apparent reluctance
to interrupt her Scottish vacation and return to London following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales.
However, by deliberately disdaining
glamour, Her Majesty The Queen has sought to present a dignified, dutiful image, especially in the aftermath of the negative publicity over the divorce of Prince Charles
and Diana, and Prince Andrew and the former Sarah Ferguson. Queen Elizabeth has reminded other royals that they are not film stars, and that their position rests on constitutional principles. By agreeing to pay income taxes, giving up the royal yacht, changing some royal rules, and limiting the number of royals receiving government money, the Queen has sought to placate growing public criticism of the monarchy. She is also notoriously frugal
, wearing out-of-date clothes, sensible shoes, and keeping the heat down at Buckingham Palace.
Elizabeth was born on April 21, 1926, the first child of the then Duke and Duchess of York. She and her younger sister, Margaret
, were educated at home. Like the rest of her family, Princess Elizabeth was athletic, loved the outdoors, and became a skilled horseback rider. After her father became king in 1936, Princess Elizabeth immediately became second in line, what is known as "the heir presumptive
," and began studying constitutional history and law.
Assuming the throne in 1952 after her father died, she has been a tireless and popular monarch. The Queen, making some 350 official engagements each year, entertains nearly 50,000 people at Buckingham Palace, and serves as patron or president of 700 organizations.
She also travels extensively, taking a particular interest in former colonies, which are now members of the British Commonwealth
. As Great Britain's head of state, the Queen has weekly audiences with the Prime Minister and other cabinet ministers. She receives copies of all cabinet papers, the records of all cabinet committee meetings, a daily summary of events in Parliament, and important Foreign Office telegrams. She is also official head of the Church of England
In 1947, Elizabeth married Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, now officially known as His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
. He was the son of Prince Andrew of Greece and a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria
. They have four children, Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward, as well as six grandchildren, Prince William, Prince Harry, Princess Eugenie, Princess Beatrice, Peter Phillips, and Zara Phillips.
The Queen is also the first British monarch to make consistent use of television
. The decision to allow a documentary on the royal family, which was broadcast in 1969, opened up the monarchy to millions of viewers around the world. While at the time the documentary was justified as a way of humanizing the royals, some observers have said it opened the door for the more intrusive coverage in the 1990s that has nearly destroyed