Russian Culture Timeline: Russian Culture
Part III: The Golden Age
by David Johnson

1756 1801 1852 1900 Next: Soviet Period

1756
Czarina Elizabeth allies Russia with France; cult of French Enlightenment (Francois Voltaire, Denis Diderot) rises, French language spreads among aristocracy
1762
Peter III emancipated nobles from state service, allowing development of leisured, cultured class; Winter Palace, triumph of lavish rococo style, begun in St. Petersburg
Circa
1770
D. Levitsky, court painter to Catherine II, excels in realistic portraits of important Russians in pseudo-classical surroundings; secular work replaces icon painting as leading style
1782
The Adolescent, play by Denis Fonvizin, is performed. Russia's first drama of social satire, early masterpiece of secular literature, questions Russian Enlightenment
1801
Charles Louis Diderot, French ballet master, father of classical Russian ballet, establishes St. Petersburg company
1812
Napoleon invades Russia; French Enlightenment loses favor, German culture, philosophy (Fredrich Schelling, Georg Hegel) becomes more popular
Circa
1820
Pan-Asianist Raphael Zotov writes The Last Descendant of Genghis Khan, seeks to create proto-Asian society by reconnecting with Russia's Mongol roots
1820-1833
Aleksandr Pushkin, father of modern Russian literature, seeks inspiration from Russian history, builds national identity, creates modern Russian language, writes poems, short stories, plays—Eugene Onegin, 1823-1831; The Bronze Horseman, 1833; Boris Godunov, 1831
1825
Bolshoi Theater opens, Moscow
Circa
1830
Two philosophical movements: Westernizers believe European modernism is answer to Russia's problems; Slavophiles seek salvation in Russia's Slavic heritage
1836-1852
Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka, father of modern Russian music, composes opera, A Life for the Czar, followed by Russlan and Ludmilla, 1842

Nikolai Gogol, Russia's greatest humorist, father of Russian realism, writes The Inspector-General, probably greatest play written in Russian; short story The Overcoat; novel Dead Souls, 1842.
1837
Mikhail Lermontov, greatest poet after Pushkin, writes heroic poem, The Song of the Merchant Kalashnikov; novel A Hero of Our Time, 1840, classic of Russian realism
1847
French choreographer Maurius Petipa arrives in St. Petersburg, enhances training, stages acclaimed productions of Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, Raymonda; Russian ballet becomes world class
1852
Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, opens
1858
Ivan Goncharov, writes novel Oblomov, satiric masterpiece featuring stock characters: indolent, lovable Slav, industrious, unpopular German
1862
Novelist, dramatist, short story writer, Ivan Turgenev, publishes Fathers and Sons, brilliant philosophical novel, presents Nihlist philosophy, seeks to reverse old order through social equality
1863
N.G. Chernyshevsky, writes novel What is to Be Done? calls for 'new men and women' to change Russia through deprivation, suffering, influenced Bolsheviks
1866-1881
Feodor Dostoyevsky, Russia's most illustrious Slavophile, romantic realist, novels Crime and Punishment; 1866; Brothers Karamazov, 1880, one of greatest novels ever written
1869
Composer Modest Moussorgsky, pioneer of Russian national style, finishes Boris Godunov, devastatingly powerful opera

Count Leo Tolstoy, one of world's greatest novelists, writes War and Peace, 1869, epic on Napoleon's invasion. 7 years later he will complete Anna Karenina, a tragic, psychological novel

Peter Tchaikovsky, one of most popular composers in history, composes symphony, Romeo and Juliet; ballets, Swan Lake, 1877; The Nutcracker, 1892; melodious, emotional, melancholy music, uses European techniques, in contrast to Russia's nationalist composers
1873
Ilya Repin, most influential Russian realist painter, paints Volga Boatmen, hailed as "art of the people"
1888
Composer Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov completes opera, The Golden Cockrel, 1909, refines Russian romanticism
1898
Constantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko establish Moscow Art Theatre; revolutionize theatrical training by creating method acting
1899
Dramatist Anton Chekhov writes masterpiece Uncle Vanya; The Three Sisters, 1901; The Cherry Orchard, 1904; focus on character's internal drama major innovation
Circa
1900
Mir Iskusstva (World of Art Group) formed, similar to Art Nouveau /ce6/ent/A0804891.html
1906
Mir Iskusstva (World of Art Group) formed, similar to Art Nouveau
1909
Sergei Diaghilev founds Ballets Russes, revolutionizes ballet, sets standard for 20th century
1910
Igor Stravinsky rockets to international fame, composes ballet Firebird at Ballet Russes; ballet Rites of Spring, 1913, features irregular, primitive rhythms, dissonance; audience riots, later accepted as landmark work
1912
Vladimir Lenin founds newspaper Pravda (Truth) while in exile
1913
Casimir Malevich promotes suprematism, art movement featuring geometric shapes painted on canvas; influences modern art, architecture, industrial design

Vladimir Tatlin founds constructivism, art movement featuring abstract elements
1917
Sergei Prokofiev's Classical Symphony mixes modern, traditional elements

Bolshevik Revolution

Infoplease Links
 More Resources
Academic, university:
Boston University Institute for the Study of Conflict, Ideology and Policy
Harvard University, Davis Center

Academic, K-12:
TeacherVision.com, Russia

Government:
Embassy of the Russian Federation to U.S.
CIA World Factbook, Russia

News:
Moscow Times
Russia Today
St. Petersburg Times

Nuclear/Environment:
Bellona Foundation

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