October 10, 1805

October 10th Wednesday Thursday a fine Morning loaded and Set out at 7 oClock at 21/2 miles passed a run on the Stard. Side haveing passed 2 Islands and two bad rapids at 3 miles lower passed a Creek on the Lard. with wide Cotton willow bottoms haveing passed an Island and a rapid an Indian Camp of three Lodgs below the Creek at 81/2 miles lower we arrived at the heade of a verry bad riffle at which place we landed near 8 Lodges of Indians on the Lard Side to view the riffle, haveing passed two Islands & Six rapids Several of them verry bad-after view'g this riffle two Canoes were taken over verry well; the third Stuck on a rock which took us an hour to get her off which was effected without her receving a greater injurey than a Small Split in her Side which was repared in a Short time, we purchased fish & dogs of those people, dined and proceeded on- here we met with an Indian from the falls at which place he Sais he Saw white people, and expressd an inclination to accompany us, we passd. a fiew miles above this riffle 2 Lodges and an Indian batheing in a hot bath made by hot Stones thrown into a pon of water. at this riffle which we Call ragid rapid took meridian altitude of the Suns upper Limb with Sextt. 74° 26' 0" Latd. produced ____ North at five miles lower and Sixty miles below the forks arived at a large Southerly fork which is the one we were on with the Snake or So-So-nee nation (haveing passed 5 rapids) This South fork or Lewis's River which has two forks which fall into it on the South the ist Small the upper large and about 2 days march up imediately parrelal to the first villages we Came to and is called by those Indians Par-nash-te on this fork a little above its mouth resides a Chief who as the Indian Say has more horses than he can Count and further Sayeth that Louises River is navagable about 60 miles up with maney rapids at which places the Indians have fishing Camps and Lodjes built of an oblong form with flat ruffs. below the 1st river on the South Side there is ten established fishing places on the 1st fork which fall in on the South Side is one fishing place, between that and the Par nash to River, five fishing places, above two, and one on that river all of the Cho-pun-nish or Pierced Nose Nation many other Indians reside high up those rivers The Countrey about the forks is an open Plain on either Side I can observe at a distance on the lower Stard. Side a high ridge of Thinly timbered Countrey the water of the South fork-is a greenish blue, the north as clear as cristial

Imediately in the point is an Indian Cabin & in the South fork a Small Island, we came to on the Stard. Side below with a view to make some luner observations the night proved Cloudy and we were disapointed The Indians Came down all the Couses of this river on each Side on horses to view us as we were desending,— The man whome we saw at the ruged rapid and expressed an inclination to accompany us to the great rapids, came up with his Son in a Small Canoe and procisted in his intentions- worthey of remark that not one Stick of timber on the river near the forks and but a fiew trees for a great distance up the River we decended I think Lewis's River is about 250 yards wide, the Koos koos ke River about 150 yards wide and the river below the forks about 300 yards wide. a miss understanding took place between Shabono one of our interpreters, and Jo. & R Fields which appears to have originated in just— our diet extremely bad haveing nothing but roots and dried fish to eate, all the Party have greatly the advantage of me, in as much as they all relish the flesh of the dogs, Several of which we purchased of the nativs for to add to our Store of fish and roots &c. &c.-

The Cho-pun-nish or Pierced nose Indians are Stout likeley men, handsom women, and verry dressey in their way, the dress of the men are a white Buffalow robe or Elk Skin dressed with Beeds which are generally white, Sea Shells-i e the Mother of Pirl hung to ther hair & on a pice of otter Skin about their necks hair Cewed in two parsels hanging forward over their Sholders, feathers, and different Coloured Paints which they find in their Countrey Generally white, Green & light Blue. Some fiew were a Shirt of Dressed Skins and long legins, & Mockersons Painted, which appears to be their winters dress, with a plat of twisted grass about their necks.

The women dress in a Shirt of Ibex, or Goat Skins which reach quite down to their anckles with a girdle, their heads are not ornemented, their Shirts are ornemented with quilled Brass, Small peces of Brass Cut into different forms, Beeds, Shells & curios bones &c. The men expose those parts which are generally kept from view by other nations but the women are more perticular than any other nation which I have passed in Screting the parts

Their amusements appear but fiew as their Situation requires the utmost exertion to prcure food they are generally employed in that pursute, all the Summer & fall fishing for the Salmon, the winter hunting the deer on Snow Shoes in the plains and takeing care of ther emence numbers of horses, & in the Spring cross the mountains to the Missouri to get Buffalow robes and meet &c. at which time they frequent meet with their enemies & lose their horses & maney of ther people

Ther disorders are but fiew and those fiew of a Scofelous nature. they make great use of Swetting. The hot and cold baethes, They are verry Selfish and Stingey of what they have to eate or ware, and they expect in return Something for everything give as presents or the Survices which they doe let it be however Small, and fail to make those returns on their part.