Second Adhyâya

First Brahmana

I. There I was formerly the proud Gargya Balaki, a man of great reading. He said to Agatasatru of Kasi, “Shall I tell you Brahman?” Agatasatru said: “We give a thousand (cows) for that speech (of yours), for verily all people run away, saying, Ganaka (the king of Mithila) is our father (patron).

2. Gargya said: “The person that is in the sun, that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as the supreme, the head of all beings, the king. Whoso adores him thus, becomes supreme, the head of all beings, a king.

3. Gargya said: “The person that is in the moon (and in the mind), that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as the great, clad in white raiment, as Soma, the king.” Whoso adores him thus, Soma is poured out and poured forth for him day by day, and his food does not fail.

4. Gargya said: “The person that is in the lightning (and in the heart), that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as the luminous.” Whoso adores him thus, becomes luminous, and his offspring becomes luminous.

5. Gargya said: “The person that is in the ether (and in the ether of the heart), that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him as what is full, and quiescent.” Whoso adores him thus, becomes filled with offspring and cattle, and his offspring does not cease from this world.

6. Gargya said: “The person that is in the wind (and in the breath), that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him as Indra Vaikuntha, as the unconquerable army (of the Maruts).” Whoso adores him thus, becomes victorious, unconquerable, conquering his enemies.

7. Gargya said: “The person that is in the fire (and in the heart), that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him as powerful.” Whoso adores him thus, becomes powerful, and his offspring becomes powerful.

8. Gargya said: “The person that is in the water (in seed, and in the heart), that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him as likeness.” Whoso adores him thus, to him comes what is likely (or proper), not what is improper; what is born from him, is like unto him 1.

9. Gargya said: “The person that is in the mirror, that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as the brilliant.” Whoso adores him thus, he becomes brilliant, his offspring becomes brilliant, and with whomsoever he comes together, he outshines them.

10. Gargya said: “The sound that follows a man while he moves, that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as life.” Whoso adores him thus, he reaches his full age in this world, breath does not leave him before the time.

11. Gargya said: “The person that is in space, that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as the second who never leaves us.” Whoso adores him thus, becomes possessed of a second, his party is not cut off from him.

12. Gargya said: “The person that consists of the shadow, that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as death.” Whoso adores him thus, he reaches his whole age in this world, death does not approach him before the time.

13. Gargya said: “The person that is in the body, that I adore as Brahman.” Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him verily as embodied.” Whoso adores him thus, becomes embodied, and his offspring becomes embodied.

Then Gargya became silent.

14. Agatasatru said: “Thus far only?” “Thus far only,” he replied. Agatasatru said: “This does not suffice to know it (the true Brahman).” Gargya replied: “Then let me come to you, as a pupil.

15. Agatasatru said: “Verily, it is unnatural that a Brahmana should come to a Kshatriya, hoping that he should tell him the Brahman. However, I shall make you know him clearly,” thus saying he took him by the hand and rose.

And the two together came to a person who was asleep. He called him by these names, “Thou, great one, clad in white raiment, Soma, King.” He did not rise. Then rubbing him with his hand, he woke him, and he arose.

16. Agatasatru said: “When this man was thus asleep, where was then the person (purusha), the intelligent? and from whence did he thus come back?” Gargya did not know this.

17. Agatasatru said: “When this man was thus asleep, then the intelligent person (purusha), having through the intelligence of the senses (prânas) absorbed within himself all intelligence, lies in the ether, which is in the heart. When he takes in these different kinds of intelligence, then it is said that the man sleeps (svapiti). Then the breath is kept in, speech is kept in, the ear is kept in, the eye is kept in, the mind is kept in.

18. “But when he moves about in sleep (and dream), then these are his worlds. He is, as it were, a great king; he is, as it were, a great Brahmana; he rises, as it were, and he falls. And as a great king might keep in his own subjects, and move about, according to his pleasure, within his own domain, thus does that person (who is endowed with intelligence) keep in the various senses (prânas) and move about, according to his pleasure, within his own body (while dreaming).

19. “Next, when he is in profound sleep, and knows nothing, there are the seventy-two thousand arteries called Hita, which from the heart spread through the body. Through them he moves forth and rests in the surrounding body. And as a young man, or a great king, or a great Brahmana, having reached the summit of happiness, might rest, so does he then rest.

20. “As the spider comes out with its thread, or as small sparks come forth from fire, thus do all senses, all worlds, all Devas, all beings come forth from that Self. The Upanishad (the true name and doctrine) of that Self is ‘the True of the True.’ Verily the senses are the true, and he is the true of the true.