Fourth Adhyâya

 

1. There was formerly Gargya Balaki, famous as a man of great reading; for it was said of him that he lived among the Usinaras, among the Satvat-Matsyas the Kuru-Pankalas, the Kasi-Videhas. Having gone to Agatasatru, (the king) of Kasi, he said to him: “Shall I tell you Brahman?” Agatasatru said to him: “We give a thousand (cows) for that speech (of yours), for verily all people run away, saying, ‘Ganaka (the king of Mithila) is our father (patron).

2. [about 2 pages of verbatim Sanskrit omitted]

3. Balaki said: “The person that is in the sun, on him I meditate (as Brahman).

Agatasatru said to him: “No, no! do not challenge me (to a disputation) on this. I meditate on him who is called great, clad in white raiment, the supreme, the head of all beings. Who so meditates on him thus, becomes supreme, and the head of all beings.

4. Balaki said: “The person that is in the moon, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as Soma, the king, the self, (source) of all food. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes the self, (source) of all food.

5. Balaki said: “The person that is in the lightning, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him—“Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the self in light. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes the self in light.

6. Balaki said: “The person that is in the thunder, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the self of sound. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes the self of sound.

7. Balaki said: “The person that is in the ether, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the full, quiescent Brahman. Whoso meditates on him thus, is filled with offspring and cattle. Neither he himself nor his offspring dies before the time.

8. Balaki said: “The person that is in the air, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as Indra Vaikuntha, as the unconquerable army. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes victorious, unconquerable, conquering his enemies.

9. Balaki said: “The person that is in the fire, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as powerful. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes powerful among others.

10. Balaki said: “The person that is in the water, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the self of the name. Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes the self of the name.” So far with regard to deities (mythological); now with regard to the body (physiological).

11. Balaki said: “The person that is in the mirror, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the likeness. Whoso meditates on him thus, to him a son is born in his family who is his likeness, not one who is not his likeness.

12. Balaki said: “The person that is in the echo, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the second, who never goes away. Whoso meditates on him thus, he gets a second from his second (his wife), he becomes doubled.

13. Balaki said: “The sound that follows a man, on that I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as life. Whoso meditates on him thus, neither he himself nor his offspring will faint before the time.

14. Balaki said: “The person that is in the shadow, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as death. Whoso meditates on him thus, neither he himself nor his offspring will die before the time.

15. Balaki said: “The person that is embodied, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as Lord of creatures. Whoso meditates on him thus, is multiplied in offspring and cattle.

16. Balaki said: “The Self which is conscious (pragna), and by whom he who sleeps here, walks about in sleep, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as Yama the king. Whoso meditates on him thus, everything is subdued for his excellencies.

17. Balaki said: “The person that is in the right eye, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the self of the name, as the self of fire, as the self of splendour. Whoso meditates on him thus, he becomes the self of these.

18. Balaki said “The person that is in the left eye, on him I meditate.

Agatasatru said to him: “Do not challenge me on this. I meditate on him as the self of the true, as the self of lightning, as the self of light. Whoso meditates on him thus, he becomes the self of these.

19. After this Balaki became silent. Agatasatru said to him: “Thus far only (do you know), O Balaki?” “Thus far only,” replied Balaki.

Then Agatasatru said to him: “Vainly did you challenge me, saying: ‘Shall I tell you Brahman?’ O Balaki, he who is the maker of those persons (whom you mentioned), he of whom all this is the work, he alone is to be known.

Thereupon Balaki came, carrying fuel in his hand, saying: “May I come to you as a pupil?” Agatasatru said to him: “I deem it improper that a Kshatriya should initiate a Brahmana. Come, I shall make you know clearly.” Then taking him by the hand, he went forth. And the two together came to a person who was asleep. And Agatasatru called him, saying: “Thou great one, clad in white raiment, Soma, King.” But he remained lying. Then he pushed him with a stick, and he rose at once. Then said Agatasatru to him: “Balaki, where did this person here sleep? Where was he? Whence came he thus back?” Balaki did not know.

20. And Agatasatru said to him: “Where this person here slept, where he was, whence he thus came back, is this: The arteries of the heart called Hita extend from the heart of the person towards the surrounding body. Small as a hair divided a thousand times, they stand full of a thin fluid of various colours, white, black, yellow, red. In these the person is when sleeping he sees no dream.

Then he becomes one with that prâna alone. Then speech goes to him with all names, the eye with all forms, the ear with all sounds, the mind with all thoughts. And when he awakes, then, as from a burning fire, sparks proceed in all directions, thus from that self the prânas (speech, &c.) proceed, each towards its place, from the prânas the gods, from the gods the worlds. And as a razor might be fitted in a razor-case, or as fire in the fire-place (the arani on the altar), even thus this conscious self enters the self of the body (considers the body as himself) to the very hairs and nails. And the other selfs (such as speech, &c.) follow that self, as his people follow the master of the house. And as the master feeds with his people, nay, as his people feed on the master, thus does this conscious self feed with the other selfs, as a master with his people, and the other selfs follow him, as his people follow the master. So long as Indra did not understand that self, the Asuras conquered him. When he understood it, he conquered the Asuras and obtained the pre-eminence among all gods, sovereignty, supremacy. And thus also he who knows this obtains pre-eminence among all beings, sovereignty, supremacy,—yea, he who knows this.