State abbreviation/Postal code: N.M./NM
Governor: Susana Martinez, R (to Jan. 2019)
Lieut. Governor: John Sanchez, R (to Jan. 2019)
Senators: Tom Udall, D (to Jan. 2021); Martin Heinrich, D (to Jan. 2019)
Secy. of State: Dianna J. Duran, R (to Jan. 2019)
Atty. General: Hector Balderas, D (to Jan. 2019)
State Treasurer: Tim Eichenberg, D (to Jan. 2019)
Organized as territory: Sept. 9, 1850
Entered Union (rank): Jan. 6, 1912 (47)
Present constitution adopted: 1911
Motto: Crescit eundo (It grows as it goes)
Nickname: Land of Enchantment (1999)
Origin of name: From Mexico, “place of Mexitli,” an Aztec god or leader
10 largest cities (2012 est.): Albuquerque, 555,417; Las Cruces , 101,047; Rio Rancho, 90,818; Santa Fe , 69,204; Roswell , 48,477; Farmington, 45,854; South Valley, 40,976; Clovis, 39,197; Hobbs, 35,007; Alamogordo, 31,500
Land area: 121,356 sq mi. (314,312 sq km)
Geographic center: In Torrance Co., 12 mi. SSW of Willard
Number of counties: 33
Largest county by population and area: Bernalillo, 662,564 (2010); Catron, 6,928 sq mi.
State parks: 31
Residents: New Mexican
2014 resident population est.: 2,085,572
2010 resident census population (rank): 2,059,179 (36). Male: 1,017,421 (49.4%); Female: 1,041,758 (50.6%). White: 1,407,276 (68.4%); Black: 42,550 (2.1%); American Indian: 193,222 (9.4%); Asian: 28,208 (1.4%); Other race: 308,503 (15.0%); Two or more races: 77,010 (3.7%); Hispanic/Latino: 953,403 (46.3%). 2010 percent population 18 and over: 74.8; 65 and over: 13.2; median age: 36.7.
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, a Spanish explorer searching for gold, traveled the region that became New Mexico in 1540–1542. In 1598 the first Spanish settlement was established on the Rio Grande River by Juan de Onate; in 1610 Santa Fe was founded and made the capital of New Mexico.
The U.S. acquired most of New Mexico in 1848, as a result of the Mexican War, and the remainder in the 1853 Gadsden Purchase. Union troops captured the territory from the Confederates during the Civil War. With the surrender of Geronimo in 1886, the Apache Wars and most of the Indian conflicts in the area were ended.
Since 1945, New Mexico has been a leader in energy research and development with extensive experiments conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and Sandia Laboratories in the nuclear, solar, and geothermal areas.
Minerals are the state's richest natural resource, and New Mexico is one of the U.S. leaders in output of uranium and potassium salts. Petroleum, natural gas, copper, gold, silver, zinc, lead, and molybdenum also contribute heavily to the state's income.
The principal manufacturing industries include food products, chemicals, transportation equipment, lumber, electrical machinery, and stone-clay-glass products. About two-thirds of New Mexico's farm income comes from livestock products, especially dairy and cattle. Pecans, hay, and onions are the most important field crops. Corn, peanuts, beans, onions, chilies, and lettuce are also grown.
Tourist attractions include the Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Inscription Rock at El Morro National Monument, the ruins at Fort Union, Billy the Kid mementos at Lincoln, the White Sands and Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monuments, Bandelier National Monument, and the Chaco Culture National Historical Park.
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