State abbreviation/Postal code: N.D./ND
Governor: Jack Dalrymple, R (to Dec. 15, 2016)
Lieut. Governor: Drew Wrigley, R (to Dec. 15, 2016)
Senators:John Hoeven, R (to Jan. 2017); Heidi Heitkamp, D (to Jan. 2019)
Organized as territory: March 2, 1861
Entered Union (rank): Nov. 2, 1889 (39)
Present constitution adopted: 1889
Motto: Liberty and union, now and forever: one and inseparable
Nickname: Sioux State; Flickertail State; Peace Garden State; Rough Rider State
Origin of name: From the Sioux tribe, meaning “allies”
10 largest cities (2012 est.): Fargo, 109,779; Bismarck, 64,751; Grand Forks, 53,456; Minot , 43,746; West Fargo, 27,478; Dickinson, 19,697; Mandan , 18,978; Williston, 18,532; Jamestown, 15,323; Wahpeton, 7,800
Land area: 68,976 sq mi. (178,648 sq km)
Geographic center: In Sheridan Co., 5 mi. SW of McClusky
Number of counties: 53
Largest county by population and area: Cass, 149,778 (2010); McKenzie, 2,742 sq mi.
State parks: 17
Residents: North Dakotan
2014 resident population est.: 739,482
2010 resident census population (rank): 672,591 (49). Male: 339,864 (50.5%); Female: 332,727 (549.5%). White: 605,449 (90.0%); Black: 7,960 (1.2%); American Indian: 36,591 (5.4%); Asian: 6,909 (1.0%); Other race: 3,509 (0.5%); Two or more races: 11,853(1.8%); Hispanic/Latino: 13,467 (2.0%). 2010 percent population 18 and over: 77.7; 65 and over:14.5; median age: 37.0.
North Dakota was explored in 1738–1740 by French Canadians led by Sieur de la Verendrye. In 1803, the U.S. acquired most of North Dakota from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Lewis and Clark explored the region in 1804–1806, and the first settlements were made at Pembina in 1812 by Scottish and Irish families while this area was still in dispute between the U.S. and Great Britain. In 1818, the U.S. obtained the northeast part of North Dakota by treaty with Great Britain and took possession of Pembina in 1823. However, the region remained largely unsettled until the construction of the railroad in the 1870s and 1880s.
North Dakota is the most rural of all the states, with farms covering more than 90% of the land. North Dakota ranks first in the nation's production of spring and durum wheat; other agricultural products include barley, rye, sunflowers, dry edible beans, honey, oats, flaxseed, sugar beets, hay, beef cattle, sheep, and hogs.
Recently, manufacturing industries have grown, especially food processing and farm equipment. The state's coal and oil reserves are plentiful, and it also produces natural gas, lignite, clay, sand, and gravel.
The Garrison Dam on the Missouri River provides extensive irrigation and produces 400,000 kilowatts of electricity for the Missouri Basin areas.
Known for its waterfowl, grouse, pheasant, and deer hunting and bass, trout, and pike fishing, North Dakota has 20 state parks and recreation areas. Points of interest include the International Peace Garden near Dunseith, Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site near Williston, Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site in Stanton, the State Capitol at Bismarck, the Badlands, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, and Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park.
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