State abbreviation/Postal code: Wis./WI
Governor: Scott Walker, R (to Jan. 2019)
Lieut. Governor: Rebecca Kleefisch, R (to Jan. 2019)
Secy. of State: Douglas J. La Follette, D (to Jan. 2019)
State Treasurer: Matt Adamczyk, R (to Jan. 2019)
Atty. General: Brad Schimel, R (to Jan. 2019)
Organized as territory: July 4, 1836
Entered Union (rank): May 29, 1848 (30)
Present constitution adopted: 1848
Nickname: Badger State
Origin of name: French corruption of an Indian word whose meaning is disputed
10 largest cities (2010 est.): Milwaukee, 594,833; Madison, 233,209; Green Bay, 104,057; Kenosha, 99,218; Racine, 78,860; Appleton, 72,623; Waukesha, 70,718; Oshkosh, 66,083; Eau Claire, 65,883; Janesville, 63,575
Land area: 54,310 sq mi. (140,673 sq km)
Geographic center: In Wood Co., 9 mi. SE of Marshfield
Number of counties: 72
Largest county by population and area: Milwaukee, 947,735 (2010); Marathon, 1,545 sq mi.
State parks, forests, and recreation areas: 95
2010 resident population est.: 5,686,986
2010 resident census population (rank): 5,686,986 (20). Male: 2,822,400 (49.6%); Female: 2,864,586 (50.4%). White: 4,902,067 (86.2%); Black: 359,148 (6.3%); American Indian: 54,526 (1.0%); Asian: 129,234 (2.3%); Other race: 135,867 (2.4%); Two or more races: 104,317 (1.8%); Hispanic/Latino: 336,056 (5.9%). 2010 percent population 18 and over: 76.4; 65 and over: 13.7; median age: 38.5.
The Wisconsin region was first explored for France by Jean Nicolet, who landed at Green Bay in 1634. In 1660 a French trading post and Roman Catholic mission were established near present-day Ashland.
Great Britain obtained the region in settlement of the French and Indian Wars in 1763; the U.S. acquired it in 1783 after the Revolutionary War. However, Great Britain retained actual control until after the War of 1812. The region was successively governed as part of the territories of Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan between 1800 and 1836, when it became a separate territory.
Wisconsin is a leading state in milk and cheese production. Other important farm products are peas, beans, beets, corn, potatoes, oats, hay, and cranberries.
The chief industrial products of the state are automobiles, machinery, furniture, paper, beer, and processed foods. Wisconsin ranks first among the paper-producing states. The state's mines produce copper, iron ore, lead, and zinc.
Wisconsin is a pioneer in social legislation, providing pensions for the blind (1907), aid to dependent children (1913), and old-age assistance (1925). In labor legislation, the state was the first to enact an unemployment compensation law (1932) and the first in which a workman's compensation law actually took effect. In 1984, Wisconsin became the first state to adopt the Uniform Marital Property Act.
The state has over 14,000 lakes, of which Winnebago is the largest. Water sports, ice-boating, and fishing are popular, as are skiing and hunting. The 95 state parks, forests, and recreation areas take up one-seventh of the land.
Among the many points of interest are the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore; Ice Age National Scientific Reserve; the Circus World Museum at Baraboo; the Wolf, St. Croix, and Lower St. Croix national scenic riverways; and the Wisconsin Dells.
For several weeks in early 2011, tens of thousands of state employees and teachers staged protests in Madison, Wisconsin, camping out near the Capitol's rotunda. They were protesting Governor Scott Walker's plan to cut collective bargaining rights and workers' benefits in an effort to solve the state's budget problems. The protests received international attention, especially from countries like Egypt, which were involved in their own political uprisings at the same time.
In June 2012, Scott Walker became the first governor in U.S. history to survive a recall election. Once again he beat Tom Barrett, mayor of Milwaukee and Walker's 2010 opponent.
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