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From our dictionary:
1. a member of a Turkish reformist and nationalist party that was founded in the latter part of the 19th century and was the dominant political party in Turkey in the period 1908–18.
2. an insurgent in a political party, esp. one belonging to a group or faction that supports liberal or progressive policies: The leadership of the party passed from the cautious old-line conservatives to the zealous Young Turks.
3. Also, young' Turk', young' turk'. any person aggressively or impatiently advocating reform within an organization.