H. Graf, Opera for the People (2d ed. 1969); R. G. Pauly, Music and the Theater: An Introduction to Opera (1970); J. Wechsberg, The Opera (1972); L. Orrey, A Concise History of Opera (1973); S. Braubard, The Future of Opera (1988); D. Grout, A Short History of Opera (3d ed. 1988); C. Headington et al., ed., Opera: A History (1988); S. Sadie, Opera (1988) and, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (1998); R. H. Kornick, Recent American Opera: A Production Guide (1991); P. Gossett, Divas and Scholars: Performing Italian Opera (2006); C. Abbate and R. Parker, A History of Opera (2012); E. Baker, From the Score to the Stage (2013).

For studies of librettos see P. J. Smith, The Tenth Muse (1971) and A. H. Drummond, American Opera Librettos (1973). For books containing summaries of opera plots, see K. Kohrs, ed., The New Milton Cross' Complete Stories of the Great Operas (1952) and The New Milton Cross' More Stories of the Great Operas (1980), and H. W. Simon, ed., The Victor Book of the Opera (13th ed., 1968).

Sections in this article:

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Music: Theory, Forms, and Instruments