BossTweed . The Gould-Fisk scheme to corner gold in 1869 caused the Black Friday panic. Public protest forced the Gould group out of the Erie, ending with Gould's expulsion in 1872. He then bought into the Union Pacific and other western roads. He gained control of four lines that made up the Gould system. For years his name was a symbol of autocratic business practice, and he was widely disliked. After his death his estate and interests were managed by his son, George Jay Gould .
See biographies by M. Klein (1986) and E. J. Renahan, Jr. (2005) C. F. and H. Adams, Chapters of Erie (1871) R. O'Connor, Gould's Millions (1962) E. P. Hoyt, Jr., Goulds (1969).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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