After the Spanish conquered (1564) the Philippines, the Moros waged constant war, which continued even after the United States took over (1898) the islands. Within the Republic of the Philippines they have pressed for autonomy since the 1960s, but in most regions where the Moros live they are now outnumbered by Christians, who strongly oppose the idea of a Muslim-led government. The associated fighting by Moro guerrillas has persisted into the 21st cent., despite a number of peace agreements with various groups. In 1990 an autonomous, four-province region was created in the S Philippines as expanded in 2001 it consists of Tawi-Tawi, Sulu, and Basilan provinces (the Sulu Archipelago) and two provinces and Marawi City on Mindanao. An agreement in 2014 with the largest Moro guerrilla group called for superseding the autonomous region by 2016 with a new one, to be called Bangsamoro, with somewhat enlarged territory and increased autonomy.
See M. Mednick, Encampment of the Lake (1965) A. C. Glang, Muslim Secession or Integration? (1969).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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