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Bahrain | Political Unrest in the Middle East Spreads to Bahrain
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Political Unrest in the Middle East Spreads to Bahrain
Anti-government demonstrations gripped several countries in the Middle East in early 2011, and Bahrain experienced some of the most violent confrontations between protesters and government forces and police. The protesters, inspired by recent events in Egypt and Tunisia, began their protests on Feb. 14. There has long been simmering tension between the populace, which is 70% Shiite, and the Sunni monarchy and ruling class. Shiites complain that they are excluded from top positions in the military and government and claim that the government encourages immigration of Sunnis and then gives Sunnis preference in hiring. In response to the protests, King Hamad offered each Bahraini a payment of about $2,700 and promised to increase jobs, which only emboldened the opposition. On Feb. 17, police fired on the demonstrators in Manama's Pearl Square, killing at least two people, and during the funeral the next day, government forces attacked mourners. The attacks drew a strong rebuke from the U.S., which bases the navy's Fifth Fleet in Bahrain and stations troops in the country.
The government withdrew troops on Feb. 18, and for the next several days thousands of triumphant protesters poured into Pearl Square. Crowds reached their peak on Feb. 22, with more than 100,000 protesters gathered in the square. The enormous pro-democracy protests continued for three weeks, but the euphoria was short lived. On March 14, at the request of King Hamad, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates dispatched 2,000 troops to help break up the protests. The presence of neighboring Sunni troops in a country populated by a majority of Shiites further inflamed sectarian strife. The Shiites labeled the deployment an "invasion." When violence broke out between protesters and troops, King Hamad declared martial law and resumed implementing repressive tactics against the opposition, including using force to remove protesters from Pearl Square, warrantless searches, mass arrests, and there were allegations of torture. King Hamad lifted the state of emergency on June 1, but the country remained tense and on the brink of violence.
In June King Hamad appointed an independent commission to investigate the crackdown by his security forces on protesters. The report released in November found widespread human-rights abuses, saying prisoners—mostly Shia—were hooded, whipped, beaten, and given electric-shock treatment. Five prisoners died in custody. While the report was an embarrassment to the government and highly critical, it proved that the king followed up on his promise to fairly and fully investigate the allegations of abuse. Hamad said the perpetrators will be fired.
Protesters returning to Pearl Square in Manama in February 2012 to mark the one-year anniversary of the uprising were pushed back by police who fired tear gas and stun grenades at them. The protests continued through the year, and the government continued to stifle dissent and crack down on the movement. Several protesters and police were killed in the fighting, and in October the interior minister banned demonstrations and forms of protest, saying protesters had taken advantage of the freedom of speech the government had granted them.