Cause: Afghanistan’s Taliban government harbored Osama bin Laden and the al-Qaeda terrorist group, who were responsible for the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the United States. After they refused to turn over Bin Laden, the U.S. and UN coalition forces attacked.
Outcome: The Taliban government was ousted and many terrorist camps in Afghanistan were destroyed.
- The Taliban surrendered within two months, much more quickly than expected. The Taliban and al-Qaeda began to regroup in 2003, after the United States shifted its military efforts to fighting the war in Iraq, and attacks on U.S. and NATO troops have continued since.