avant-garde conductor, composer
Birthplace: Montbrison, France
Grammy Award-winning conductor and composer considered a leader of the avant-garde. His works include Le Marteau sans maître (1954) and Pli selon pli (1960). He was music director and conductor of the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra (1971–77) and is currently director of the Insitut de Recherche et de Coordination Acoustique/Music in Paris (1976–present).