Roman Republic and Roman Empire: Rulers

Updated February 21, 2017 | Factmonster Staff

Roman Republic and Roman Empire: Rulers

Roman Republic

  • Cato the Elder, statesman (234?149 B.C.)
  • Gracchi, (Tiberius Sempronius Graccus [d. 133B.C.] and Caius Sempronius Gracchus [d. 121 B.C.], statesmen and social reformers
  • Caius Marius, general and consul (157?86 B.C.)
  • Lucius Cornelius Sulla, general and consul (138?78 B.C.)
  • Pompey, general and member of First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Crassus (106?48B.C.)
  • Marcus Licinius Crassus, member of First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey (d. 53 B.C.)
  • Cato the Younger, statesman (95?46 B.C.)
  • Julius Caesar, general and statesman (100??44 B.C.)
  • Marc Antony, politician and soldier, member of Second Triumvirate with Lepidus and Octavian (Augustus) (83?30 B.C.)
  • Lepidus, member of Second Triumvirate with Marc Antony and Octavian (d. 13 B.C.)

Roman Empire

  • Augustus, (Octavian) first emperor, grandnephew of Julius Caesar, (27 B.C.?A.D. 14)
  • Tiberius, stepson of Augustus, (14?37)
  • Caligula, grandnephew of Tiberius (37?41)
  • Claudius, uncle of Caligula (41?54)
  • Nero, stepson of Claudius (54?68)
  • Galba, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers (68?69)
  • Otho, military commander (69)
  • Vitellius, military commander (69)
  • Vespasian, military commander (69?79)
  • Titus, son of Vespasian (79?81)
  • Domitian, son of Vespasian (81?96)
  • Nerva, elected interim ruler (96-98)
  • Trajan, adopted son of Nerva (98?117)
  • Hadrian, ward of Trajan (117?138)
  • Antoninus Pius, adopted by Hadrian (138?161)
  • Marcus Aurelius, adopted by Antoninus Pius (161?180)
  • Lucius Verus, adopted by Antoninus Pius; ruled jointly with Marcus Aurelius (161?169)
  • Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius (180?192)
  • Pertinax, proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard (193)
  • Didius Julianus, bought office from the Praetorian Guard (193)
  • Severus, proclaimed emperor (193?211)
  • Caracalla, son of Severus (211?217)
  • Geta, son of Severus, ruled jointly with Caracalla (211?212)
  • Macrinus, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers (217?18)
  • Heliogabalus, cousin of Caracalla (218?222)
  • Alexander Severus, cousin of Heliogabalus (222?235)
  • Maximin, proclaimed emperor by soldiers, (235?238)
  • Gordian I, made emperor by the senate (238)
  • Gordian II, son of Gordian I, ruled jointly with his father (238)
  • Balbinus, elected joint emperor by the senate (238)
  • Pupienus Maximus, elected joint emperor with Balbinus by the senate (238)
  • Gordian III, son of Gordian II (238?244)
  • Philip (the Arabian), assassin of Gordian III (244?249)
  • Decius, proclaimed emperor by the soldiers (249?2251)
  • Hostilianus, son of Decius, colleague of Gallus (251)
  • Gallus, military commander (251?253)
  • Aemilianus, military commander (253)
  • Valerian, military commander (253?260)
  • Gallienus, son of Valerian, coemperor with his father and later sole emperor (253?268)
  • Claudius II, military commander (268?270)
  • Aurelian, chosen by Claudius II as successor (270?275)
  • Tacitus, chosen by the senate (275?276)
  • Florianus, half brother of Tacitus (276)
  • Probus, military commander (276?282)
  • Carus, proclaimed by the Praetorian Guard (282?283)
  • Carinus, son of Carus (283?285)
  • Numerianus, son of Carus, joint emperor with Carinus (283?284)
  • Diocletian, military commander, divided the empire; ruled jointly with Maximian and Constantius I 284?305)
  • Maximian, appointed joint emperor by Diocletian (286?305)
  • Constantius I, joint emperor and successor of Diocletian (305?306)
  • Galerius, joint emperor with Constantius I (305?310)
  • Maximin, nephew of Galerius (308?313)
  • Licinius, appointed emperor in the West by Galerius; later emperor in the East (308?324)
  • Maxentius, son of Maximian (306?312)
  • Constantine I (the Great), son of Constantius I (306?337)
  • Constantine II, son of Constantine I (337?340)
  • Constans, son of Constantine I (337?350)
  • Constantius II, son of Constantine I (337?361)
  • Magnentius, usurped Constans' throne, (350?353)
  • Julian (the Apostate), nephew of Constantine I (361?363)
  • Jovian, elected by the army (363?364)
  • Valentinian I, proclaimed by the army; ruled in the West (364?375)
  • Valens, brother of Valentinian I; ruled in the East (364?378)
  • Gratian, son of Valentinian I; coruler in the West with Valentinian II (375?383)
  • Maximus, usurper in the West (383?388)
  • Valentinian II, son of Valentinian I, ruler of the West (375?392)
  • Eugenius, usurper in the West (393?394)
  • Theodosius I (the Great), appointed ruler of the East (379?395) by Gratian; last ruler of united empire (394?395)

Emperors in the East

  • Arcadius, son of Theodosius I (395?408)
  • Theodosius II, son of Arcadius, (408?450)
  • Marcian, brother-in-law of Theodosius II (450?457)
  • Leo I, chosen by the senate (457?474)
  • Leo II, grandson of Leo I (474)
  • Zeno (474?475)
  • Basilicus (475?476)

Emperors in the West

  • Honorius, son of Theodosius (395?423)
  • Maximus, usurper in Spain (409?411)
  • Constantius III, named joint emperor by Honorius (421)
  • Valentinian III, nephew of Honorius and son of Constantius III (425?455)
  • Petronius Maximus, bought office by bribery (455)
  • Avitus, placed in office by Goths (455?456)
  • Majorian, puppet emperor of Ricimer (457?461)
  • Libius Severus, puppet emperor of Ricimer (461?465)
  • Anthemius, appointed by Ricimer and Leo I (467?472)
  • Olybrius, appointed by Ricimer (472?473)
  • Glycerius, appointed by Leo I (473?474)
  • Julius Nepos, appointed by Leo I (474?475)
  • Romulus Augustulus, put in office by Orestes, his father (474?476)