Birthplace: Pittsburgh, Pa.
Implantable defibrillator—Heilman, Langer, Mower, and Mirowski: This team of doctors developed the implantable defibrillator, an internal electronic device that continuously monitors and regulates heart rhythms. By correcting irregular rhythms it helps ensure that sufficient blood is pumped through the heart to the body and brain, thus preventing cardiac arrest. Since its first successful use in 1980 more than 300,000 people worldwide have received an implantable defibrillator, including Vice President Dick Cheney. (2002)