Hopkins, Gerard Manley
The Wreck of the Deutschland.Thereafter he produced his best poetry, including
The Leaden Echo,and
The Golden Echo.Since Hopkins never gave permission for the publication of his verse, his Poems, edited by his friend Robert Bridges, did not appear in print until 1918. His life was continually troubled by inner conflict, which arose, not from religious skepticism, but from an inability to give himself completely to his God. Both his poems and his letters often reflect an intense dissatisfaction with himself as a poet and as a servant of God. Though he produced a small body of work, he ranks high among English poets, and his work profoundly influenced 20th-century poetry. His verse is noted for its piercing intensity of language and its experiments in prosody. Of these experiments the most famous is
sprung rhythm,a meter in which Hopkins tried to approximate the rhythm of everyday speech.
See his journals and papers (ed. by H. House and completed by G. Storey, 1959); his letters (ed. by C. C. Abbott, 1955–56); biographies by J. Pick (2d ed 1966), E. Ruggles (1944, repr. 1969), R. B. Martin (1991), N. White (1995), and P. Mariani (2008); studies by W. H. Gardner (2 vol., 2d ed. 1948), A. Heuser (1958, repr. 1969), B. Kelly (1935, repr. 1972), M. Sprinker (1980), A. G. Sulloway (1982), T. Zaniello (1987), and N. White (2002).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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