See his selected letters ed. by C. Baker (1981) and his letters ed. by M. J. Bruccoli (1996) and by S. Spanier et al. (2 vol., 2011–); biographies by C. Baker (1969, rev. ed. 1980), J. Meyers (1986), M. S. Reynolds (5 vol., 1987–99), K. Lynn (1988), J. R. Mellow (1993), and M. V. Dearborn (2017); P. Hendrickson's biographical Hemingway's Boat (2011); B. Vejdovsky and M. Hemingway, Hemingway: A Life in Pictures (2011); P. Young, Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration (rev. ed. 1966); C. Baker, Hemingway, the Writer as Artist (4th ed. 1972), H. S. Villard and J. Nagel, Hemingway in Love and War (1989), and J. McLendon, Papa (1990); M. S. Reynolds, Hemingway: An Annotated Chronology (1991).
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