C.I.A.M. (Congrès internationaux d'architecture moderne). Founded in 1928 by Hélène de Mandrot, Sigfried Giedion , and Le Corbusier , C.I.A.M. sought to divert architecture from academic preoccupations. The organization was the major instrument for propagating avant-garde ideas in architecture and town planning during the periods from 1930 to 1934 and from 1950 to 1955. The early congresses stressed rigid functional zoning and a single type of urban housing; at subsequent meetings members reacted against inflexible and mechanical concepts of orderly planning. Internal conflict led to the group's eventual collapse after the Dubrovnik congress of 1956.
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