mudpuppy, common name for North American salamanders of the genus Necturus, found in rivers and streams throughout the E United States and SE Canada. The name derives from an erroneous belief that mudpuppies bark; they are also called waterdogs. Like their relative, the European olm, which lives in the caves of the Dinaric Alps, mudpuppies exhibit neoteny, i.e., they reach sexual maturity without losing larval characteristics. Adults have lungs, characteristic of most adult salamanders, as well as gills, characteristic of larvae. Their short, sturdy limbs develop at an early stage. The common mudpuppy may reach a length of 12 in. (30 cm); it is reddish brown and black-spotted above and grayish below, with conspicuous bushy red gills at the sides of its head. It walks on river bottoms and feeds primarily on crayfish and aquatic plants. Mudpuppies are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Amphibia, order Urodela, family Proteidae.

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