Sigismund: German King and Holy Roman Emperor
After the death of the German king and uncrowned Holy Roman Emperor Rupert in 1410, both Sigismund and his cousin, Jobst of Moravia, claimed victory in the imperial elections. Since Sigismund's half-brother Wenceslaus , who had been deposed from the German throne in 1400, had never waived his title, there were, for a time, three rulers of Germany. The death of Jobst (1411) and the withdrawal of Wenceslaus left Sigismund sole king and Holy Roman emperor-elect.
One of Sigismund's first tasks was to end the Great Schism in the church. He persuaded John XXIII (see Cossa, Baldassare ), the strongest of the three schismatic popes, to summon a council at Konstanz (or Constance, see Constance, Council of ). After three years of deliberation by the council, the schism was ended (1417). John Huss , the Czech religious reformer, had attended the council with Sigismund's guarantee of safe conduct, but, nevertheless, the council began heresy proceedings against him and condemned him to death. Sigismund signed his death sentence.
The burning of Huss hastened the Reformation in Bohemia and earned Sigismund the lasting hatred of the Czechs. When Sigismund succeeded to the Bohemian throne on his brother Wenceslaus's death (1419), he was bitterly opposed. To secure an army against the rebellious Bohemians, Sigismund convinced Pope Martin V to proclaim (Mar., 1420) a crusade against the Hussites . He had himself crowned king of Bohemia at Prague but was defeated by the Hussites under John Zizka and withdrew. In 1421 a Czech assembly declared him deposed, and shortly afterward the Hussites began their incursions into Germany (see Hussite Wars ). Renewed attacks by the Turks occupied Sigismund in Hungary, while in Germany and Bohemia the Hussites continued to be victorious, defeating a new crusade (1431) against them.
Negotiations to heal the breach in the church were held at the Council of Basel (see Basel, Council of ) and resulted in compromise with the drafting of the Compactata. The religious agreement opened the way to Sigismund's acceptance as king by the Bohemians in 1436. Shortly afterward, Sigismund died.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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