Casimir III, 1310–70, king of Poland (1333–70), son of Ladislaus I and last of the Piast dynasty. Called Casimir the Great, he brought comparative peace to Poland. By the Congress of Visegrad (1335) he promised to recognize the suzerainty over Silesia of John of Luxemburg, king of Bohemia; in return John renounced all claim to the Polish throne. In 1339, Casimir officially acknowledged John's power. By the Treaty of Kalisz (1343) with the Teutonic Knights, Casimir consolidated his territories, and later he acquired much of the duchy of Halych-Vladmir. He strengthened the royal power at the expense of the nobility and clergy; codified Polish law in the Statute of Wislica, alleviating the lot of the peasants (hence he was “king of the peasants”); improved the condition of the Jews; encouraged industry, commerce, and agriculture; and founded (1364) the Univ. of Kraków. Casimir was succeeded by his Angevin nephew, King Louis I of Hungary.
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