Gray, Horace, 1828–1902, American jurist, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1881–1902), b. Boston. At first a reporter (1854–61) to the Massachusetts supreme court, he later entered into law practice. Originally a member of the Free-Soil party, he became a Republican. After an unsuccessful attempt (1860) to secure the nomination for Massachusetts attorney general, he was appointed (1864) to the state supreme court and later (1873) became chief justice of the court. He was appointed by President Arthur to the U.S. Supreme Court, where he served the last 21 years of his life. As a lawyer and jurist, Gray was noted for using analytical case study as an approach to the historical development of legal principles and for his use of precedent in arguing and deciding cases.
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