Humbert I, 1844–1900, king of Italy (1878–1900), son and successor of Victor Emmanuel II. A soldier by training, Humbert showed interest primarily in military affairs and foreign policy, and early expectations of his tolerance and liberalism were largely unfulfilled. Under the influence of his conservative wife, Margherita, Humbert became increasingly authoritarian, favoring the imperialistic and pro-German policies of premier Francesco Crispi and disregarding the recommendations of parliamentary leaders. His orientation helped lead to the conclusion of the Triple Alliance. Escaping two attempts on his life, he fell victim to an assassin at Monza. His son, Victor Emmanuel III, succeeded him.
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