Utrecht, Peace of

Utrecht, Peace of, series of treaties that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession. It put an end to French expansion and signaled the rise of the British Empire. By the treaty between England and France (Apr. 11, 1713), Louis XIV recognized the English succession as established in the house of Hanover and confirmed the renunciation of the claims to the French throne of Louis's grandson, Philip V of Spain. The French fortifications of Dunkirk were to be razed and the harbor filled up, and the Hudson Bay territory, Acadia, St. Kitts, and Newfoundland were ceded to England. By a commercial treaty England and France granted each other most-favored-nation treatment. By a treaty with the Netherlands (Apr. 11, 1713) France agreed to surrender to Austria the Spanish Netherlands still in French hands; these were to be held in trust by the Netherlands until the conclusion of a treaty between the Netherlands and the Holy Roman emperor. A commercial treaty between France and the Netherlands was also signed. France furthermore restored Savoy and Nice to Victor Amadeus II, recognizing him as king of Savoy. France also signed a treaty with Portugal and one with Prussia confirming the kingship of the Prussian rulers. The Anglo-Spanish treaty (July 13, 1713) confirmed the clauses of the Anglo-French treaties relating to the English and French successions. Spain ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to Great Britain and ceded Sicily (exchanged in 1720 for Sardinia) to Savoy. Britain and Spain signed the Asiento, an agreement giving Britain the sole right to the slave trade with Spanish America. The Treaty of Rastatt (Mar. 7, 1714) between Louis XIV and Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and the Treaty of Baden (Sept. 7, 1714), which completed the settlement, restored the right bank of the Rhine to the empire and confirmed Austria in possession of the formerly Spanish Netherlands, of Naples, and of Milan. The Third Barrier Treaty (Nov. 15, 1715) regulated trade relations between the Dutch and Austrian Netherlands.

See J. W. Gerard, The Peace of Utrecht (1885).

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