Independence. 1 City (2020 pop. 6,064), seat of Buchanan co., NE Iowa; founded 1847. Located on the Wapsipinicon River, the town's grist mill opened in 1867 (now a museum). The Independence State Hospital (founded in 1873 as the Iowa Hospital for the Insane) is located there. In the late 19th century, it was a center for horse racing. 2 City (2020 pop. 8,548), seat of Montgomery co., SE Kans., on the Verdigris River, near the Okla. line, in an important oil-producing area where corn and wheat are also grown. Light aircraft, motor vehicle parts, cement, and printing and publishing are important industries; natural gas is distributed. The town was founded (1869) on a former Osage reservation. It boomed with the discovery of natural gas in 1881 and oil in 1903. 3 City (2020 pop. 123,011), seat of Jackson co., W Mo., a suburb of Kansas City; inc. 1849. Its manufactures include machinery, building materials, apparel, foods, paper products, and ordnance. Soybeans, corn, and sorghum are grown, and there is dairying and natural-gas production in the area. In the 1830s and 40s, Independence was the starting point for expeditions over the Santa Fe Trail, the Oregon Trail, and the California Trail. A group of Mormons settled there in 1831, and the city is the world headquarters of the Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints). Independence was the home of President Harry S. Truman and is the seat of the Harry S. Truman Library and Museum, on whose grounds the former president is buried. Other points of interest include the old county jail and museum (1859; restored); the old county courthouse (1825; restored); and nearby Fort Osage (1808; reconstructed). Park Univ. has a campus in Independence. 4 City (2020 pop. 7,584), Cayuhoga co., NE Ohio; founded c.1814, inc. 1914. It is a residential and industrial suburb of Cleveland. In 1827, the Ohio & Erie Canal came through the city, making it a major distribution center; further growth came after the railroad in 1880. Through the 19th century, it was known for sandstone and shale quarries.

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