Landmarks include Trinity Cathedral (1810, with the spire of a church built in 1743) the Sacred Heart Cathedral (begun 1899, completed 1954) the First Presbyterian Church (1791) the Newark Public Library (founded 1888) the Newark Museum (1909) and the county courthouse (1906), with Gutzon Borglum 's statue of Lincoln in front. Other points of interest include Borglum's large group Wars of America (1926) in Military Park (a Revolutionary War drilling ground and a Civil War tenting area) and many historic homes. Aaron Burr and Stephen Crane were born in Newark.
The city was settled (1666) by Puritans from Connecticut under Robert Treat . It was the scene of Revolutionary skirmishes. Industrial growth began after the American Revolution , aided by the development of transportation facilities. The Morris Canal was opened in 1832, and the railroads arrived in 1834 and 1835. A flourishing shipping business resulted, and Newark became the area's industrial center. In the late 19th cent. its industry was further developed, especially through the efforts of such men as Seth Boyden and J. W. Hyatt . Newark Port opened in 1915, and the city's shipbuilding played an important role in World War I.
During the latter half of the 20th cent., Newark's economy and living standards greatly declined. Many residents fled to the suburbs, which were marked by a boom in corporate development, shopping center growth, and housing construction. Poverty and unemployment plagued Newark, which in July, 1967, was the scene of a major race riot. Two bright spots have been the port, which since 1985 has had a steady increase in volume of exports of containerized cargo, and Newark International Airport, which has expanded greatly. As part of an effort to revitalize the downtown, the New Jersey Performing Arts Center opened in 1997 an indoor arena and outdoor stadium have been constructed since then.
See A. S. Rice, Newark: A Chronological & Documentary History (1977).
See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. Political Geography
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