mutation: Induced Mutations

Mutations may be induced by exposure to ultraviolet rays and alpha, beta, gamma, and X radiation, by extreme changes in temperature, and by certain mutagenic chemicals such as nitrous acid, nitrogen mustard, and chemical substitutes for portions of the nucleotide subunits of genes. H. J. Muller , an American geneticist, pioneered in inducing mutations by X-ray radiation (using the fruit fly, Drosophila ) and developed a method of detecting mutations that are lethal.

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