Rubbia, Carlo, 1934–, Italian physicist, Ph.D. Univ. of Pisa, 1957. A professor of physics at the Univ. of Rome and later at Harvard, Rubbia did his most important work with Simon van der Meer at CERN . The pair discovered the W and Z particles , which convey the weak force, one of nature's four fundamental forces (see weak interactions ). For their discovery, the pair was awarded the 1984 Nobel Prize in Physics. Rubbia also led a research team that produced theoretical evidence for a sixth quark, called
top(see elementary particles ).
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