Spelling Plural Nouns

Here are some general rules for spelling plural nouns.

NounsPluralExamples
Most nounsadd sbook, books; cup, cups; sprout, sprouts
Most nouns that end in ch, sh, s, x, or zadd esbox, boxes; bus, buses; prize, prizes
Most nouns that end in a vowel and yadd sboy, boys; day, days; key, keys
Most nouns that end in a consonant and yy becomes iesbaby, babies; country, countries; spy, spies
Most nouns that end in f or fef or fe becomes veself, elves; loaf, loaves; thief, thieves
Most nouns that end in oadd skangaroo, kangaroos; piano, pianos; video, videos
Certain nouns that end in a consonant and oadd eshero, heroes; potato, potatoes; volcano, volcanoes

Some Exceptions


Geese

Certain English nouns change a vowel sound when they become plural. These include goose, geese; man, men; mouse, mice; and tooth, teeth.

Some nouns don't change at all when they become plural. These include deer, fish, sheep, and species.

A few nouns have plural forms that are left from Old English. These include child, children and ox, oxen.