Guide to New Nations: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
by David Johnson
| Armenia |
On August 23, 1991, Armenia proclaimed its independence. The former Soviet republic invaded neighboring Azerbaijan to aid ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh, who had declared independence from Muslim Azerbaijan. A cease-fire was reached in 1994, but no permanent peace deal has been signed. Armenia effectively controls the area.
| || Azerbaijan |
Azerbaijan, a former Soviet republic, declared its independence on August 30, 1991. In the early 1990s, Armenia seized almost 20% of Azerbaijan's territory, generating 750,000 Azerbaijani refugees. Armenia was acting on behalf of ethnic Armenians in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, who favored independence or unification with Armenia. A cease-fire has been in effect since 1994, but no permanent peace deal has been signed.
| Georgia |
Georgia proclaimed its independence on April 6, 1991. At first, the former Soviet republic was unstable. However, a new constitution was adopted in 1995. The following year a cease-fire agreement was signed with secessionist rebels in South Ossetia. Violence periodically flares between Georgian troops and rebels in Abkhazia.