Key to Pronunciation Symbols

Key to Pronunciation Symbols
usofa (sO fu ), ite m (I tu m), easi ly (E zu lE ), canno n (kanu n), circu s (srku s)
aa ct (akt), ba t (bat)
Aa pe (A p), fai l (fA l), day (dA )
ai r (r), ca re (kr)
a rt (rt), fa ther (fu r)
bb ack (bak), lab or (lA bu r), cab (kab)
chch in (chin), hatch et (hachu t), rich (rich)
dd ock (dok), lad y (lA dE ), sad (sad)
ee nd (end), stea dy (stedE ), me t (met)
Ee ve (E v), clea r (klE r), see (sE )
ff at (fat), ph ase (fA z), cough (kf)
gg et (get), bigg er (bigu r), tag (tag)
hh and (hand), ah ead (u hed)
hwwh eel (hwE l), wh ich (hwich)
ii t (it), pi ll (pil), mi rror (miru r)
Ii ron (I u rn), eye (I ), buy er (bI u r)
jj am (jam), g ing er (jinju r), edg e (ej)
kk it (kit), tack le (taku l), c ook (kook)
ll ittl e (litu l), holl y (holE), pull (pool)
mm an (man), hamm er (hamu r), climb (klI m)
nn ew (noo), kn own (nO n), winn er (winu r)
ngsing ing (singing), fin ger (finggu r), sang (sang), san k (sangk)
oho t (hot), bo dy (bodE )
Oo ver (O vu r), ho pe (hO p), grow (grO )
o rbit (rbit), fa ll (fl), saw (s)
oofoo t (foot), wo lf (woolf), pu t (poot), pu re (pyoor)
OOboo t (bOO t), lo se (lOO z), drew (drOO ), true (trOO )
oioi l (oil), roy al (roiu l), boy (boi)
ouou t (out), crow d (kroud), how (hou)
pp ip e (pI p), happ y (hapE )
rr oad (rO d), appear ed (u pE rd), car penter (krpu ntu r)
ss o (sO ), c ite (sI t), bas te (bA st)
shsh all (shal), s ure (shOO r), nati on (nA shu n)
tt ight (tI t), bett er (betu r), t alked (tkt)
thth in (thin), bath (bath)
th en (en), fath er (fu r), bath e (bA )
ubu t (but), floo d (flud), so me (sum)
cu rl (krl), gi rl (grl), fe rn (frn), wo rm (wrm)
vv est (vest), triv ial (trivE u l), ev e (E v)
ww ax (waks), tw ins (twinz), cow ard (kouu rd)
yy ou (yOO ), oni on (unyu n)
zz ipper (zipu r), eas e (E z), treads (tredz)
zhpleas ure (plezhu r), roug e (rOO zh)
Foreign Sounds
as in French peu (p), German Goe the (gtu )
as in French Clu ny (klnE )
khas in German ach (kh), ich (ikh); Scottish loch (lokh)
Nthis symbol indicates that the preceding vowel is nasal as in French ci nq (saNk), u n (N), sa ns (sN), to mbe (tNb), e n (N)
Accents and Hyphens
primary accent, written after accented vowel or syllable: Nebraska (nu brasku ), James Buchanan (byOO kanu n)
"secondary accent: Mississippi (mis"u s-sipE )
dash, replacing obvious portion of pronunciation: hegemony (hijemu nE, hE , heju mO "nE , hegu )
-hyphen, to prevent ambiguity in syllabification: Erlanger (rlang-u r), dishearten (dis-hrtu n)