2009 Nobel Prize Winners
Below find the winners of the 2009 Nobel Prizes, including prizes for Peace, Physics, Medicine, Chemistry, Literature, and Economics.
Barack Obama (U.S) for his "extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples"
- Physiology or Medicine
Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider, and Jack W. Szostak (all U.S) for "the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
One-half to Charles K. Kao (China) for "groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication," and one-quarter to both Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith (both U.S.) for "the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit–the CCD sensor)
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (UK), Thomas A. Steitz (U.S.), and Ada E. Yonath (U.S.) for "studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"
Herta Müller (Germany) "who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"
Elinor Ostrom (U.S.) for "her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons" and Oliver E. Williamson (U.S.) for "his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"