Benjamin A. Rubin

Born: 1917
Birthplace: New York City

Bifurcated vaccination needle—Until 1967 smallpox killed at least 2 million people annually. In 1980 the World Health Organization declared that smallpox had been defeated. Rubin ground down the eyelet of a sewing machine needle to invent the bifurcated vaccination needle which could easily be used by anyone under difficult conditions. (1992)