Facts & Figures
President: Nursultan A. Nazarbayev (1990)
Prime Minister: Karim Masimov (2014)
Land area: 1,049,150 sq mi (2,717,300 sq km); total area: 1,049,150 sq mi (2,717,300 sq km)
Population (2014 est.): 17,948,816 (growth rate: 1.17%); birth rate: 19.61/1000; infant mortality rate: 21.61/1000; life expectancy: 70.24
Capital (2011 est.): Astana 664,000
Largest city: Almaty 1.426 million
Monetary unit: Tenge
National name: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Languages: Kazak (Qazaq, state language) 64%; Russian (official, used in everyday business) 95% (2001 est.)
Ethnicity/race: Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.8%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.5% (2009 census)
Religions: Islam 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%
National Holiday: Independence Day, December 16
Literacy rate: 99.7% (2009 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP $243.6 billion (2013 est.); $14,100 (2013 est.). Real growth rate: 5%. Inflation: 5.8%. Unemployment: 5.3%. Arable land: 8.82%. Agriculture: grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; livestock. Labor force: 9.022 million; industry 11.9%, agriculture 25.8%, services 62.3% (2013 est.). Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials. Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium. Exports: $87.23 billion (2013 est.): oil and oil products, natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, grain, wool, meat, coal. Imports: $52.03 billion (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs. Major trading partners: China, Germany, Ukraine, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria (2012 ).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 4.34 million (2012); mobile cellular: 28.731 million (2012). Broadcast media:state owns nearly all radio and TV transmission facilities and operates national TV and radio networks; nearly all nationwide TV networks are wholly or partly owned by the government; some former state-owned media outlets have been privatized and are controlled by the president's daughter, who heads the Khabar Agency that runs multiple TV and radio stations; a number of privately-owned TV stations; households with satellite dishes have access to foreign media; a small number of commercial radio stations operating along with state-run radio stations (2008). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 67,464 (2012). Internet users: 5.299 million (2009).
Transportation: Railways: total: 15,333 km (2012). Roadways: total: 97,418 km ; paved: 87,140 km; unpaved: 10,278 km (2012). Waterways: 4,000 km (on the Ertis (Irtysh) River (80%) and Syr Darya (Syrdariya) River) (2010). Ports and terminals:Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk). Airports: 96 (2013).
International disputes: Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries with Turkmenistan commenced in 2005, and with Uzbekistan in 2004; ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea.