Facts & Figures
National name: Jamhuryat as-Sudan
President: Lt. Gen. Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (1989)
Total area: 1,156,673 sq mi (1,861,484 sq km)
Population (2014 est.): 35,482,233 (growth rate: 1.78%); birth rate: 30.01/1000; infant mortality rate: 52.86/1000; life expectancy: 63.32; density per sq mi: 42.4
Capital (2011 est.): Khartoum, 4.632 million
Largest cities: Omdurman, 2,395,159; Port Sudan, 489,275
Monetary unit: Dinar
Languages: Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
Ethnicity/race: Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
Religions: Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
Literacy rate: 71.9% (2011 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $89.97 billion; per capita $2,600. Real growth rate: 3.9%. Inflation: 25%. Unemployment: 20% (2012 est.). Arable land: 6.76%. Agriculture: cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock. Labor force: 11.92 million (2007 est.); agriculture 80%, industry 7%, services 13% (1998 est.). Industries: oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly. Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower. Exports: $4.145 billion (2013 est.): gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar. Imports: $5.941 billion (2013 est.): foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat. Major trading partners: Macau, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, India, Germany, Ethiopia (2012).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 425,000 (2012); mobile cellular: 27.659 million (2012). Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (2007). Radios: 7.55 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997). Televisions: 2.38 million (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 99 (2012). Internet users: 4.2 million (2008).
Transportation: Railways: total: 5,978 km (2008). Highways: total: 11,900 km; paved: 4,320 km; unpaved: 7,580 km (2000 est.). Waterways: 4,068 km navigable (2011). Ports and harbors: Port Sudan. Airports: 74 (2013).
International disputes: the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of mid-2013, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Israel, the Central African Republic, and South Sudan provided shelter for more than 600,000 Sudanese refugees; during the same period, Sudan, in turn, hosted about 115,000 Eritreans, 32,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians and Central Africans; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan.