Increasingly interested in and devoted to Marxist and Maoist philosophies, Godard for a period subsumed his identity into that of a filmmaking collective. After some years of inactivity, he returned in 1980 with Every Man for Himself and has since directed such films as Hail Mary (1985) and Hélas pour Moi (1994), both of which explore the possibility of the divine playing a role in everyday contemporary life, and Forever Mozart (1996). His eight-part Histoire(s) du Cinéma (1988–98) is an extremely personal meditation on the history and nature of cinematic art. Godard's 21st-century films include In Praise of Love (2001), a mournful study of the precarious nature of historical memory in a mass-media age, the three-part Notre Musique (2004), which uses the structure of Dante's Divine Comedy to examine humanity's thirst for destruction and document the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the 3-D Goodbye to Language (2014), a beautiful, evocative visual essay that defies meaning.
See his autobiographical film, JLG/JLG (1994), and Godard on Godard (1968; tr. 1972, repr. 1986), a collection of early writings; R. Brody, Everything Is Cinema: The Working Life of Jean-Luc Godard (2008); C. MacCabe, Godard: A Portrait of the Artist at Seventy (2004); studies by T. Mussman, ed. (1968), C. Barr (1970), R. Roud (1980), C. MacCabe (1981), Y. Loshitzky (1995), W. W. Dixon (1997), K. Silverman and H. Farocki (1998), and D. Sterritt (1999); Two in the Wave (documentary, dir. by E. Laurent, 2009).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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