Karpinsky, Alexander Petrovich [key], 1846–1936, Soviet geologist. From 1869 to 1885 he was at the Mining Institute, St. Petersburg as student and teacher. He was imperial director (1885–1916) of mining research and in 1886 was elected to what became known as the Soviet Academy of Sciences, of which he was president from 1916 until his death. Karpinsky was noted for his prolific research on various geological subjects, especially paleontology, mineralogy, and petrology. His work was chiefly in the Urals, and he completed the first geological map of European Russia; it appeared in Outline of the Geological History of European Russia (1883–94). At the time of the Soviet revolution he was influential in preserving much scientific equipment and many invaluable records and also in securing for the Academy of Sciences an important role in the new regime.
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